Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin was born in Cairo, Egypt (1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British chemist who developed protein crystallography for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.
She advanced the technique of X-ray crystallography, a method used to determine the three-dimensional structures of biomolecules. Among her most influential discoveries are the confirmation of the structure of penicillin and the structure of vitamin B12.
Dorothy married Thomas Lionel Hodgkin and had 3 children. At the age of 24, Dorothy began experiencing pain in her hands. A visit to a doctor led to a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis which would become progressively worse and crippling over time with deformities in both her hands and feet. In her last years, Dorothy spent a great deal of time in a wheelchair but remained scientifically active despite her disability.